# Basic knowledge of textiles: dedicated to textile novices

Update:04-08-2016
Summary:

First, the commonly used calculation formula for textil […]

First, the commonly used calculation formula for textile is divided into two types: the fixed length system calculation formula and the constant weight system calculation formula.

1. Formula for calculating the fixed length system:

(1), denier (D): D = g / L * 9000 where g is the weight of the wire (grams), L is the length of the wire (meters)

(2), tex (number) [tex (H)]: tex = g / L * 1000 where g is the weight (gram) of the yarn (or silk), L is the length of the yarn (or silk) (meter )

(3), Dtex (dtex): dtex=g/L*9000 where g is the weight of the wire (g), L is the length of the wire (m)

2. Formula for calculating the weight system:

(1), metric count (N): N = L / G where G is the weight (gram) of the yarn (or silk), L is the length of the yarn (or silk) (m)

(2), the British count (S): S = L / (G * 840) where G is the weight of the wire (in pounds), L is the length of the wire (code)

Second, the textile unit chooses the conversion formula:

(1) Conversion formula of metric count (N) and denier (D): D=9000/N

(2), the conversion formula of the British system (S) and denier (D): D = 5315 / S

(3), the conversion formula of dtex and tex: 1tex=10dtex

(4), tex (tex) and denier (D) conversion formula: tex = D / 9

(5), tex (tex) and imperial count (S) conversion formula: tex = K / SK value: pure cotton yarn K = 583.1 purified fiber K = 590.5 polyester cotton yarn K = 587.6 cotton sticky yarn (75: 25) K=584.8 Victorian cotton yarn (50:50) K=587.0

(6), tex (tex) and metric (N) conversion formula: tex = 1000 / N

(7), the conversion formula of dtex and denier (D): dtex=10D/9

(8), dtex and imperial count (S) conversion formula: dtex = 10K / SK value: pure cotton yarn K = 583.1 purified fiber K = 590.5 polyester yarn K = 587.6 cotton yarn (75 :25)K=584.8 Victorian cotton yarn (50:50) K=587.0

(9), the conversion formula of the tex (dtex) and the metric count (N): dtex=10000/N

(10), metric centimeter (cm) and inch inch (inch) conversion formula: 1inch = 2.54cm

(11) Conversion formula of metric meter (M) and inch code (yd): 1 yard = 0.9144 m

(12), conversion formula of satin square weight (g/m2) and mmi (m/m): 1m/m=4.3056g/m2

(13), the actual weight and weight of the satin conversion formula: pound weight (lb) = weight per meter (g / m) * 0.9144 (m / yd) * 50 (yd) / 453.6 (g / yd)

Third, the detection method:

1. Visual inspection method: This method is applicable to textile raw materials in the state of scattered fibers.

(1) Cotton fiber is shorter and thinner than ramie fiber and other hemp process fibers and wool fibers, often with various impurities and defects.

(2) Hemp fiber feels rougher.

(3) The wool fiber is curly and elastic.

(4) Silk is filament, long and slender, with a special luster.

(5) Among the chemical fibers, only the viscose fiber has a large difference in strength between the dry and wet states.

(6), spandex has a very large elasticity, its length can be stretched more than five times at room temperature.

2. Microscopic observation method: The fiber is identified according to the longitudinal and sectional shape characteristics of the fiber.

(1), cotton fiber: cross-sectional shape: waist round, with a middle waist; vertical shape: flat ribbon, with natural rotation.

(2), hemp (ramie, flax, jute) fiber: cross-sectional shape: waist round or polygonal, with a middle cavity; vertical surface shape: there are horizontal sections, vertical lines.

(3), wool fiber: cross-sectional shape: round or nearly round, some have a pulp; vertical form: the surface has scales.

(4), rabbit hair fiber: cross-sectional shape: dumbbell type, with pulp; vertical form: surface has scales.

(5), mulberry silk fiber: cross-sectional shape: irregular triangle; vertical surface shape: smooth and straight, longitudinal stripes.

(6), ordinary viscose: cross-sectional shape: zigzag, sheath core structure; vertical shape: longitudinal grooves.

(7), rich and strong fibers: cross-sectional shape: less tooth shape, or round, oval; vertical form: smooth surface.

(8), acetate fiber: cross-sectional morphology: trilobal or irregular zigzag; longitudinal morphology: the surface has vertical stripes.

(9) Acrylic fiber: cross-sectional shape: round, dumbbell-shaped or leaf-like; longitudinal shape: smooth or streaked surface.

(10), polyvinyl chloride fiber: cross-sectional shape: close to a circle; vertical form: smooth surface.

(11), spandex fiber: cross-sectional shape: irregular shape, round, potato-shaped; vertical surface shape: dark dark surface, unclear bone-shaped stripes.

(12), polyester, nylon, polypropylene fiber: cross-sectional shape: round or shaped; vertical form: smooth.

(13), vinylon fiber: cross-sectional shape: waist round, sheath core structure; vertical surface shape: 1~2 grooves.

3. Density gradient method: The fiber is identified according to the characteristics of various fibers having different densities.

(1), the density gradient solution is formulated, generally using a xylene carbon tetrachloride system.

(2), calibration density gradient tube, commonly used is the precision ball method.

(3), measurement and calculation, the fiber to be tested is deoiled, dried, defoamed and pretreated, and after the ball is put into balance, the fiber density is measured according to the fiber suspension position.

4. Fluorescence method: The fiber is irradiated by an ultraviolet fluorescent lamp, and the fiber is identified according to the different properties of the various fibers, and the fluorescent color of the fiber is also different.

The fluorescent colors of various fibers are specifically shown:

(1), cotton, wool fiber: light yellow

(2) Mercerized cotton fiber: light red

(3), jute (raw) fiber: purple brown

(4), jute, silk, nylon fiber: light blue

(5), viscose fiber: white purple shadow

(6), light viscose fiber: light yellow purple shadow

(7), polyester fiber: white light blue sky is very bright

(8), vinylon has light fiber: light yellow purple shadow.

5. Combustion method: According to the chemical composition of the fiber, the combustion characteristics are also different, so that a large class of fibers is roughly divided.

The combustion characteristics of several common fibers are discriminated as follows:

(1), cotton, hemp, viscose, copper ammonia fiber: close to the flame: no shrinking or melting; contact with the flame: rapid combustion; leaving the flame: continue to burn; smell: burning paper smell; residue characteristics: a small amount of gray or gray ash.

(2), silk, wool fiber: close to the flame: curl and melt; contact flame: curl, melt, burn; leave the flame: slow burning sometimes self-extinguishing; smell: smell of burning hair; residue characteristics: loose and brittle black particles Or coke-like.

(3), polyester fiber: close to the flame: melting; contact flame: melting, smoking, slow burning; leaving the flame: continue to burn, sometimes self-extinguishing; smell: special aromatic sweet; residue characteristics: hard black beads .

(4), nylon fiber: close to the flame: melting; contact flame: melting, smoking; leaving the flame: self-extinguishing; smell: amino flavor; residue characteristics: hard light brown transparent beads.

(5) Acrylic fiber: close to the flame: melting; contact with the flame: melting, smoking; leaving the flame: continue to burn, black smoke; smell: spicy taste; residue characteristics: black irregular beads, fragile.

(6), polypropylene fiber: close to the flame: melting; contact flame: melting, burning; leaving the flame: continue to burn; smell: paraffin flavor; residue characteristics: gray-white hard transparent beads.

(7), spandex fiber: close to the flame: melting; contact flame: melting, burning; leaving the flame: self-extinguishing; smell: specific taste; residue characteristics: white gelatinous.

(8), Chlorine fiber: close to the flame: melting; contact flame: melting, burning, black smoke; leaving the flame: self-extinguishing; smell: pungent smell; residue characteristics: dark brown lumps.

(9), vinylon fiber: close to the flame: melting; contact flame: melting, burning; leaving the flame: continue to burn, black smoke; smell: characteristic fragrance; residue characteristics: irregular focus brown lumps.

Fourth, the common concept of textile:

1, warp, warp, warp density - fabric length direction; the yarn is called warp yarn; its number of yarns within 1 inch is dense (warp density);

2, weft, weft, weft density - fabric width direction; the yarn is called weft yarn, the number of yarns in 1 inch is weft density (weft density);

3, density - used to indicate the number of yarns per unit length of the woven fabric, generally the number of yarns within 1 inch or 10 cm, the national standard specifies the number of yarns within 10 cm to indicate the density, but Textile companies are still accustomed to using the number of yarns within 1 inch to indicate density. As commonly seen, "45X45/108X58" means that the warp weft yarns are 45, respectively, and the warp and weft density is 108, 58.

4, width - the effective width of the fabric, generally used in inches or centimeters, common 36-inch, 44-inch, 56-60-inch, etc., respectively, referred to as narrow, medium and wide, respectively, above 60 The inch fabric is extra wide, which is often called wide-width fabric. The width of today's extra-wide fabric can reach 360 cm. The width is generally marked behind the density. For example, if the fabric mentioned in 3 is added, the width is expressed as: "45X45/108X58/60"", that is, the width is 60 inches.

5, gram weight - the weight of the fabric is generally the weight of the square fabric weight, gram weight is an important technical index of knitted fabrics, woollen wool usually also take grams weight as an important technical indicator. The weight of denim fabric is generally expressed in "ounces (OZ)", that is, the number of ounces per square yard of fabric weight, such as 7 ounces, 12 ounces of denim, etc.;

6, yarn-dyed - Japan called "first dyed fabric", refers to the first method of dyeing yarn or filament, and then using color yarn for weaving, this fabric is called "dyed fabric", production color Weaving factories are generally called dyeing and weaving factories, such as denim, and most of the shirt fabrics are yarn-dyed fabrics;

Fifth, the classification method of textile fabrics:

1. Classified according to different processing methods

(1) Woven fabric: a fabric which is interlaced on a loom according to a certain rule by yarns which are arranged perpendicularly to each other, that is, two systems in the transverse direction and the longitudinal direction. There are denim, brocade, slate, hemp and so on.

(2) Knitted fabric: A fabric formed by knitting a yarn into a loop, which is divided into weft knitting and warp knitting. a. The weft knitted fabric feeds the weft thread from the weft direction to the working needle of the knitting machine, so that the yarns are sequentially bent into a loop and are interwoven with each other. b. Warp knitted fabrics are formed by using one or several sets of yarns arranged in parallel, which are fed into all the working needles of the knitting machine in the warp direction and simultaneously formed into loops.

(3) Non-woven fabric: The loose fibers are bonded or stitched. At present, two methods of bonding and puncture are mainly used. This processing method can greatly simplify the process, reduce costs, and improve labor productivity, and has a broad development prospect.

2. Classification according to the yarn materials constituting the fabric

(1) Pure textiles: The same kind of fibers are used for the raw materials constituting the fabric, such as cotton fabric, wool fabric, silk fabric, polyester fabric and the like.

(2) Blended textiles: The raw materials constituting the fabric are made of two or more kinds of different kinds of fibers, which are made by blending yarns, and have mixed fabrics such as polyester-viscose, polyester-nitrile, polyester-cotton and the like.

(3) Mixed fabric: The raw materials constituting the fabric are made of single yarn of two kinds of fibers, which are combined into a strand, and have low-elastic polyester filaments mixed with medium and long lengths, and also have polyester staple fibers and low The polyester filaments are mixed and formed into strands.

(4) Interwoven fabric: The raw materials of the two-direction system constituting the fabric are respectively made of different fiber yarns, antique satin interwoven with silk rayon, nylon and rayon interwoven Nifune.

3. According to whether the fabric materials are dyed or not

(1), white fabric: raw materials that have not been bleached and dyed are processed into fabrics, and silk fabrics are also called raw fabrics.

(2) Color fabric: The raw material or fancy line after bleaching and dyeing is processed into a fabric, and the silk weave is also called a cooked fabric.

4, novel fabric classification

(1) Adhesive cloth: It is made by bonding two pieces of cloth back to back. Bonded fabrics, organic fabrics, knitted fabrics, nonwoven fabrics, vinyl plastic films, etc., can also be combined in different combinations.

(2), flocking processing cloth: cloth is covered with short and dense fiber fluff, with velvet style, can be used as clothing and decorative materials.

(3) Foam laminated fabric: The foam is adhered to a woven or knitted fabric as a base fabric, and is mostly used as a cold-proof fabric.

(4) Coated fabric: It is made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), neoprene or the like on the base fabric of woven or knitted fabric, and has superior waterproof function.

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